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Düsseldorf Leading Learning Objectives

The "Düsseldorf Leading Learning Objectives" are the core of the Düsseldorf Curriculum Medicine. They characterize in detail the respective increase in knowledge, skills and attitudes that our students acquire on their way to becoming doctors.

Preventive, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Competence

is the ability to actively advocate health promotion, to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis and therapy according to the rules of medical art and to act accordingly.

The students know health promotion measures, common diseases and their influencing factors as well as preventive measures. During the clinical examination, you will know the normal findings, recognize deviations from them and document these findings. They master basic life-saving measures.

The students

  • describe symptoms, findings and therapies using selected diseases as examples
  • carry out general hygienic measures
  • perform structured anamneses and physical examinations
  • master other basic clinical skills (e.g. venipuncture, dressing changes)
  • document and describe findings appropriately
  • master basic emergency medical measures
  • recognize situations with high health risk and risky health behavior and address them
  • describe health promotion measures and participate in activities to strengthen physical, mental and social well-being.

Students will be able to determine the indications for further examinations on the basis of the patient's medical history and clinical findings and evaluate the results of these examinations. They are able to make differential diagnostic considerations, including rare diseases, to take therapeutic and preventive measures and to explain and justify their approach.

The students

  • make specific recommendations in the case of risky health behavior and risky life situations
  • master hygienic measures and sterile work appropriate to the clinical situation
  • perform differentiated symptom-oriented anamneses, psychopathological findings and physical examinations
  • know how to assess the cognitive performance and affective behavior of patients
  • link diagnostic constellations of findings with clinical pictures
  • formulate and check differential diagnoses
  • take preventive measures into account in their diagnostic and therapeutic planning
  • assign suitable therapy concepts to clinical pictures
  • describe the therapeutic concepts for common diseases
  • describe and recognize the most common interactions of different therapies
  • explain rarer, prognostically relevant diseases
  • determine the effects of prevention, diagnostics and therapy
  • identify the treatment requirements and treatment needs of patients
  • carry out advanced emergency medical measures (e.g. rhythm analysis, emergency medication)
  • apply concepts of clinical decision-making to individual patients
  • take into account the principles of evidence-based medicine
  • evaluate the development of the patient's course of illness (illness, convalescence and health)
  • take into account influencing factors and options for help that lie outside the scope of medical action
  • determine the death of a person, carry out the medical post-mortem examination and know the relevant legal bases for this

Graduates are able to independently assess the health condition of patients, initiate diagnostics and treatment in the event of frequent illnesses, and independently develop and monitor therapy and prevention concepts. In the event of death, you will be able to take all necessary measures, taking into account relevant legal principles.

The students

  • develop individual prevention concepts
  • carry out specialist clinical examinations
  • carry out simple diagnostic and therapeutic interventions under supervision
  • create and monitor a therapy plan
  • assess the prognosis of the individual patient
  • develop concepts for sustainable medical and psychosocial care, if required
  • involve other professional groups and colleagues in the development and implementation of treatment plans

Human Biological Competence

is the ability, based on the fundamentals of natural science, to understand the human being in its structure and function in health and disease, to analyze disease processes and to use them as a basis for prevention, diagnostics and therapy.

Students understand the structure and function of the human being. They are able to trace health and disease back to their scientific foundations and explain the biological background of selected clinical pictures and medical interventions. They explain external influences on health and the development of common human diseases.

The students

  • explain scientific relationships important for the medical understanding of health and disease
  • describe the molecular building blocks of the human body, their structure and function
  • describe the structure and function of cells
  • explain the physiological processes in the human body and the human psyche
  • explain relationships between genetic information and associated phenotypes
  • explain molecular mechanisms of action of important pharmaceuticals
  • describe the structure of the human body and its tissues and organs in its developmental phases as well as in health and disease
  • explain the origin, development, growth, aging and death of the human organism
  • explain selected molecular and cellular responses to damage to the human body
  • describe selected molecular causes of diseases
  • describe the human psyche and its developmental phases in health and illness
  • explain the most common medically relevant examination and measurement procedures

Students apply their knowledge clinically and can justify prevention, diagnostics and therapy in the context of scientific explanatory models.

The students

  • evaluate the influence of nutrition, lifestyle and environmental factors on the body and the human psyche
  • know and evaluate effects and undesired effects of important pharmaceuticals
  • characterize physiological mechanisms of aging
  • explain reactions to damage to the human body at the molecular, cellular, organ and system level
  • describe basics of gene and cell therapeutic measures
  • evaluate the results of the most common medically relevant examination and measurement techniques
  • make scientific findings the basis of their medical actions

Graduates will be able to analyze diseases in individual patients in terms of their biological, psychological, and social bases and consider the outcome in clinical decision making.

The students

  • plan individual diagnostic and therapeutic measures with appropriate consideration of scientific findings

Scientific Competence

is the ability to critically question information, to analyze it, to formulate hypotheses and to test them using appropriate methods.

Students are familiar with different models of science as well as the basics of scientific methodology.

The students

  • apply basic principles of scientific work
  • use exemplary measurement and observation methods of qualitative and quantitative research and practice basic laboratory activities
  • use modern information technologies as well as data processing methods and research and interpret scientific literature
  • explain the basics of statistics

Students complete and present science projects under supervision.

The students

  • recognize the possibilities and limitations of scientific principles
  • take into account the approach of evidence-based medicine
  • carry out scientific projects (planning, execution, statistical evaluation, interpretation of data)
  • evaluate scientific literature on medical issues
  • apply methods of medical statistics and epidemiology
  • present and discuss the results of scientific work

Graduates will be able to apply scientific findings to individual patients.

The students

  • evaluate the transferability of scientific findings to medical treatment in individual cases

Social and Ethical Competence

is the ability to critically reflect on attitudes and values in medical practice and to live responsibly while considering and respecting sociocultural differences and patients' claims to autonomy.

Students are familiar with the social, ethical and legal foundations of medical practice. They are familiar with socio-cultural influences on health and illness, on physicians' self-images and on the expectations of healthy and sick people towards the health care system.

The students

  • observe the principles of responsible treatment of the patient's dignity and personal rights and consider their central importance for medical practice
  • explain the development and socialization of individuals and their significance for health and illness
  • describe the structure and function of societies and their significance for health and illness
  • distinguish between social and behavioral science models to explain health and disease
  • name the legal basis of medical practice
  • describe basic concepts and models of medical ethics and their historical development
  • describe social influences on the role of physicians and their changes
  • explain different value systems with regard to medical action
  • describe socio-cultural characteristics and needs of healthy and sick people

Students respond appropriately to people from all social groups, taking into account their understanding of health and illness as well as life, death and dying. They are able to weigh up treatment concepts from an ethical point of view and taking into account individual patient needs.

The students

  • understand what it means to consider the dignity and personal rights of the patient in everyday medical practice
  • understand different cultural ideas and attitudes towards life, death and dying as well as their historical development
  • apply the legal principles of medical practice
  • recognize the possibilities and limits of medical action
  • reflect on typical clinical cases from the perspective of medical ethics and medical law
  • reflect on the social functions of medical measures
  • stand up for the rights of healthy and sick people

Graduates practice medicine under supervision according to professional standards.

The students

  • take into account the dignity and personal rights of human beings
  • cooperate with colleagues and members of other health care professions with the goal of optimal medical treatment
  • act according to appropriate ethical principles and recognize the possibilities and limits of their competence
  • evaluate the social consequences of medical procedures (e.g. social inequality of medical care)

Communicative Competence

is the ability to approach each person appropriately.

Students will know the basics of general human interaction and the specifics of doctor-patient and team communication.

The students

  • demonstrate and evaluate active listening techniques, various questioning techniques, as well as feedback rules and nonverbal aspects of communication
  • apply techniques for establishing and maintaining an empathic relationship
  • reflect on their own interests and emotions as well as those of others
  • explain models of the doctor-patient relationship and the relationship between doctors and patients in its partnership and hierarchical aspects
  • contribute constructively to teams, perceive different points of view of team members and reflect on their own role
  • conduct simple medical discussions in a structured manner

Students communicate appropriately in everyday medical practice. They reflect on their communication in a multi-professional team. They are able to adopt other people's perspectives and take different interests into account.

The students

  • communicate in a context-appropriate manner and understand the needs and abilities of patients
  • recognize disruptions in communication and deal with them constructively
  • grasp divergences between their own values and interests and those of patients and their relatives and take these into account appropriately
  • present medical measures in terms of advantages and disadvantages and explain the consequences of possible diagnostic and therapeutic measures
  • are able to openly discuss their own medical uncertainties with patients and their relatives, discuss preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures with all those involved and agree on common objectives
  • assume responsibility within the team and recognize tasks and responsibilities
  • communicate in partnership with other professional groups

Graduates will master appropriate and effective communication.

The students

  • Under supervision, undertake the communication necessary for the medical treatment of patients
  • provide space for the healthy and sick to actively participate in decision making
  • contribute to interprofessional teams with the goal of providing optimal patient care
  • summarize medical histories, diagnostic processes and therapy recommendations, e.g. in doctor's letters, and comment on prognosis

Self Competence

is the ability to self-organize and self-reflect as the basis for lifelong personal development.

Students independently reflect on and define their goals and pursue them. They can independently draw up a work plan.

The students

  •     gain experience with different learning and motivation strategies
  •     develop their own learning strategies and time management
  •     evaluate and weight their own learning progress and learning needs
  •     recognize signs of overload in themselves and others and react to them appropriately
  •     identify different options for support in professional and personal challenges, evaluate their own coping strategies and request help
  •     ensure a balance between work and leisure

Students apply their self-organization skills in dealing with patients and are aware of their medical responsibilities.

Students will

  • describe strategies and techniques for time management and apply them in their clinical activities
  • name and assess their own potential with regard to the team and consider the effect of their own person on others

Graduates design work processes sensibly and effectively. They continually update their knowledge. They represent their interests appropriately and with respect for others.

The students

  • apply strategies for self-care in their daily work routine
  • deepen appropriate learning strategies for lifelong learning
  • learn to structure their work processes sensibly and effectively

Economic Competence

is the ability to use the available resources efficiently.

Students are familiar with the basics of the organization and financing of the health care system and know the basic concepts of health economics.

The students

  • understand the structure of the German health and social system as well as the tasks of different actors in the health care system
  • see the concept of economic efficiency in the health care system from different perspectives (e.g. patient or payer)
  • describe factors that can influence the economic efficiency of medical care

Students will demonstrate responsible use of available resources, be able to assess cost-effectiveness of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures with respect to medical ethics, and gauge the importance of taking steps to improve the cost-effectiveness of medical care.

The students

  • describe financing principles of the German health and social system
  • explain concepts of health economic evaluation
  • discuss the economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of selected preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures

Graduates practice medicine with due regard for economic considerations.

The students

  • apply the principles of performance and quality management
  • take into account the economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of their medical activities

Teaching Competence

is the ability to communicate knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context.

Students impart theoretical knowledge as well as practical skills to fellow students.

The students

  • convey knowledge, skills and attitudes to fellow students, taking into account various didactic methods
  • apply modern presentation techniques
  • explain the principles of teaching and learning

Students communicate medical knowledge to others.

The students

  • Convey medical knowledge to patients, their families, students, or persons in other health care professions

Graduates conduct courses on medical topics.

The students

  • plan and conduct e.g. seminars or similar events on medical topics, using appropriate didactic methods
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